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December 22, 2006

Table of Contents
Japanese And South Korean Customers Are The Key
Connecting With Our Ancestors
Growing Old Or Growing Soft?
Immigration Raids Send Shockwaves
Merry Christmas Wishes
Pondering The True Meaning Of Christmas
Grassley To Push For Greater Competition In Ag Markets
Japanese Food Chains Ask For Easing Of U.S. Beef Rules
Panama & U.S. Complete FTA
South Korea Says No To Beef As A Part Of FTA Talks
USMEF Beefs Up Holiday Promotions In Japan
Grain Price Estimates Rise
Land-Grant Colleges Get Involved In Iraq
National Cowherd Still Treading Water
R-CALF Plans Annual Convention In Denver, CO
Young Man's Hereford Wish Comes True
109th Congress Leaves Unfinished Business
Republicans Named to Senate Ag Committee
Minnesotans Registering Their Premises At 26% Clip


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Our Perspective
Japanese And South Korean Customers Are The Key
From a political standpoint, the U.S. has been unwilling to ratchet up the pressure on the South Korean and Japanese governments relative to the beef trade. These governments have ample internal and external political incentive to continue on the path they've chosen -- to reject recognized world standards for beef trade and restrict access to their markets.

The success of returning trade to some semblance of what it was prior to December 2003 may ultimately hinge on the Japanese and South Korean customer. This week, the U.S. Meat Export Federation revealed Koreans pay more for beef than any country in the world. Thanks to a lack of supply and some of the largest tariffs on beef in the world, consumers in Seoul pay the equivalent of $31/lb. for sliced chuck roll, while Japan is paying $21/lb.

In reality, the South Korean market is closed to U.S. product, while the shortage of age-verified product keeps U.S. shipments to Japan at 14% of the volume prior to the December 2003 market closure. Packers indicate the amount of beef being shipped could more than triple if supplies would allow it.

South Korea and Japan's acceptance of world-trade standards likely won't come from the application of political pressure by the U.S. (though we could certainly stand to increase it). It will come via consumers demanding access to the highest quality, safest and most cost-effective, corn-fed beef in the world.
-- Troy Marshall


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Connecting With Our Ancestors
As I write this, we're experiencing one of the most severe snowstorms in Colorado in more than a decade -- 16 in. of snow, 30 mph winds, and roads and businesses almost universally shut down. Our commercial female sale for our bull customers had to be postponed until after the first of the year. It's a pretty unique combination of beauty and severity.

We all derive a certain amount of pride in putting our animals first and seeing them safely through these types of storms. And there's something almost noble about standing up to Mother Nature and fighting her to a draw, if that's possible. Of course, we're also thankful for the moisture and can almost visualize the green grass it will bring in the spring.

But while we get an adrenaline rush from such battles, they also remind us of what a shared experience we all have. Roughly 1 billion people rely on the raising of livestock for at least a portion of their livelihood. It's hard in such times to not think about lucky we are -- how we have oiled roads within 4 miles of the house that likely will be plowed and opened within three days, how we have tractors, equipment, feed resources and shelters our ancestors could only dream of.

I've heard stories of how my great-grandparents homesteaded their land. To this day, I'm amazed at how they could have built the barns and houses they did, dug the wells, and completed the work they did with the resources of that day.

Don't get me wrong, I'm pretty comfortable with all the technology and luxuries we have, but I sometimes ponder whether we could have survived back them.
-- Troy Marshall


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Growing Old Or Growing Soft?
Last week, I addressed an industry meeting during which a speaker talked of the value of being profit-driven and that every decision should be made on the basis of its financial merits.

Ten years ago, I'd have made nearly the same speech. My conviction at the time was that we needed to think in terms of agribusiness and not agriculture (business vs. culture).

Listening to the speaker, however, it struck me that I no longer agree with solely a profit motivation. I've come to understand that part of the allure of this business is its culture. The integrity, traditions and values that symbolize our business must be preserved.

I've softened because profit is only part of the reason I'm in this business. It's also the lifestyle I admire, and values I aspire to represent.

But I also have deep concerns about the argument for profit-based management decisions, which almost always seems to be used to excuse a non-response to customer demands. Certainly there are limits to what can be done on the customer-service side of things -- after all, overspending can reduce profit margins.

There are two types of profit. The first is short-term; it's what people refer to in arguing the importance of profit in management decisions. It can be summarized by the mantra, "I'll do it when I get paid for it."

The second type of profit is long-term. Here, the perception of the industry, demand for our product and the like become critical.

Perhaps I'm getting old, but preserving traditions and focusing on long-term profits over short-term ones shouldn't be just a consideration; it should be a primary focus.

Of course, I'd be the first to admit that without short-term profits, long-term profits aren't an option, and that a key to sustaining our lifestyle is to have a sustainable and profitable business model.
-- Troy Marshall


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Immigration Raids Send Shockwaves
The raid by the Department of Homeland Security's Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) personnel on six Swift & Company plants last week dominated the news. Four of the plants -- Greeley, CO; Grand Island, NE; Cactus, TX and Hyrum, UT -- are beef plants. The other two -- Marshalltown, IA and Worthington, MN -- are pork plants. ICE did not raid Swift's pork plant at Louisville, KY.

Swift's management is crying foul over the raids, claiming they violate agreements associated with its participation in the federal government's Basic Pilot worker authorization program. These aren't the first of these raids, nor likely will they be the last.

The packing industry runs on immigrant labor -- nothing new about that. Upton Sinclair's 1906 book, "The Jungle," followed the trials of Lithuanian immigrant Jurgis Rudkus as he tried to embark on the American dream working in Chicago's packing plants. Rudkus was an example of virtually the entire industry at the time, and Sinclair, an avowed socialist, used his plight to argue the benefits of socialism.

It's been said Sinclair "aimed at Americans' hearts" with his story, but ended up "hitting Americans' stomachs" with his tales of woeful sanitary conditions in the stockyards districts' meat plants. The book played a major role in the creation of federal meat inspection services.

The sector's dependence on immigrant labor declined in the post-war years as the major packing companies fell under a Master Labor Contract that increased wages and benefits. The development of the commercial broiler industry and its low-cost products, and the entry of IBP into beef -- followed by pork processing -- put major economic pressure on the old-line packers with higher wage costs.

When those packers either went out of business or escaped the Master Contract, wages once again fell, and packinghouse jobs became unattractive to much of the U.S. work force.

Enter, once again, immigrants -- this time from Mexico, Central and South America and Southeast Asia.

Last week, a reporter posed this question: "Why is this an 'immigrant labor' industry?"

The answer is two-fold. First, packing-plant work is difficult and often unpleasant. Killing and disassembling animals isn't a very pretty enterprise and many Americans simply won't do those jobs unless in dire straits.

While our economy hasn't treated everyone extremely well, it's still been good enough to provide job alternatives that don't involve cold temperatures, knives and blood. It's safe to say packing-plant jobs are probably not on the current career plans of most U.S. high school students.

Second, while these are difficult, unpleasant and low-paying jobs, relative to most U.S. jobs, they're no more difficult and no more unpleasant -- and higher paying -- relative to conditions in many immigrants' home countries. I don't offer that as a reason to exploit these workers -- they should be paid the value of what they produce. I only offer it as a statement of fact that leads many immigrants to enter the packing-plant workforce. Some take great risks to do so.

The lesson of last week was both broad and specific. The broad lesson is we as a country have to make up our collective minds about how we will deal with illegal immigrants. It's a tough question, but let's hope some politicians have some courage on this subject soon.

The more specific lesson is that livestock producers and packers need to consider what they'll do if a) this crackdown on illegal workers continues, or b) a workable guest-worker program can be devised.

Both will impact labor availability and cost and those factors should be considered when planning for 2007 and beyond.
-- Steve R. Meyer, North American Preview


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Merry Christmas Wishes
As I pass through airports, I see a fair number of soldiers on their way home, or away from home to a service destination. When I can, I try to greet them and tell them thanks for their service. I've seen a lot of folks do the same thing.

It was hard at first, approaching a complete stranger to pay them a compliment. You don't know for sure what their disposition is or if they'll think you odd, and a lot of folks like their privacy. But most of them return a shy sort of thanks at the gesture; some seem genuinely touched.

I remember standing in line to board a plane a couple of months ago coming back from San Antonio, TX, and a young soldier was in line behind me. I quietly passed on my thanks to him for his service, and he graciously received it with a quiet shyness.

His day was really made a few moments after that, however, when an attractive young woman about his age approached him, touched his shoulder and effusively did the same thing. She actually said it loud enough that a number of folks in the waiting area noticed and many of them smiled and nodded approvingly to the soldier as he looked around.

There's perhaps no "lonely" as deep as the loneliness of a person separated from their loved ones at what is a traditional family time, such as Christmas. And there's likely no lonelier a person can be than someone serving in the middle of a foreign culture surrounded by strange folks and ways, knowing a few among them wish you harm.

This holiday season, we have brave men and women willingly paying the price of freedom for those of us at home. Some are in danger areas, some are not, but all of them are removed from family to one degree or another.

It's a condition these folks sign up for; it comes with the territory of serving America and going to do what needs to be done wherever it needs doing. It's also why those of us not in uniform owe these folks a special debt of gratitude. You can do that by thanking them in person when you have the opportunity, and keeping these brave souls in your thoughts and prayers, particularly as you gather with your family over the next couple of weeks to open gifts, share memories and celebrate.

There's also a neat program I heard of recently called "Operation Call Home" -- www.operationcallhome.net/. It's a grassroots campaign started by a Semper Fidelis Detachment Marine Corp League in Wenonah, NJ, to aid U.S. military service members serving overseas and at home. It's been collecting calling cards since February 2003 and its inception is a touching one.

Bill McGinnis, father of Marine Sergeant Brian McGinnis, who was killed in Iraq on March 30, 2003, in a helicopter crash, never received a phone call from his son. He wanted to give other parents a chance to speak with their children in any U.S. service throughout the world. He joined forces with the Marine Corp League in June 2003, and through his efforts has been able to bring media attention to this campaign. The result is tens of thousands of cards have been donated overseas in Iraq, Afghanistan, Korea, veterans hospitals, and reserve units stationed across the U.S.

Check out the Web site, keep these folks in your thoughts and prayers, and Merry Christmas to you and all your loved ones.
-- Joe Roybal


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Pondering The True Meaning Of Christmas
Thanks to you all for allowing us to come into your homes each and every week, and we wish you a wonderful holiday season.

When I was younger, I wouldn't have felt mentioning the true meaning of the season, and the birth of Jesus Christ, as appropriate in a publication like this. Now I understand that gathering with your family around a warm fire with a cup of hot chocolate in their hands, and the images of Jesus' birth inscribed on their thoughts, the laughter and joy of being together with family and friends, is in fact infinitely more important than corn prices, or even a newly developed technology with the potential to accurately assess tenderness at change speeds.

My only regret is I don't have the writing skills to paint the picture of that glorious first Christmas that lives in almost all of our memories and hearts. Instead, I offer you my most sincere prayer that you might laugh with a close friend, hold a little one tight, and bask in the glow of a kid's smile as he or she opens their gifts; that you might sit down with your mom and dad, son or daughter and have a meaningful heart-to-heart discussion. That you might have the chance to stare into the flame of a candle and truly give praise for the birth of the Son of God and how His life, His words, and His sacrifice forever changed the world.

I hope this holiday you might have a chance to stare out a window and watch the snow flutter softly to the ground, holding your spouse's hand, and in silence feel the love you truly feel and so inadequately express.

May this be a Christmas that creates a memory that sustains you in less happier times. Merry Christmas.
-- Troy Marshall


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Industry Structure
Grassley To Push For Greater Competition In Ag Markets
Sen. Chuck Grassley (R-IA) announced his plans to press for more competition in ag during the farm bill debate next year. He plans to introduce several pieces of legislation early next year that will outline his plans for the farm bill. Grassley says they include:
  • Ban on packer ownership of livestock. This would prevent meat packers from assuming complete control of the meat supply by preventing packers from owning livestock.
  • Limit on mandatory arbitration agreements. This would be similar to previous legislation Grassley introduced that amended the Packers and Stockyards Act to prohibit mandatory arbitration clauses from being included in contracts between livestock producers and packers.
  • Review of agribusiness mergers. This would change the way the Justice Department reviews agribusiness mergers. It would also enhance USDA's ability to address anti-competitive activity in the industry.
Grassley says, "Concentration is one of the most important issues in ag today. Vertical integration leaves the independent producer with even fewer choices of who to buy from and sell to. And it hurts the ability of farmers to get a fair price for their products."
-- P. Scott Shearer, Washington, D.C., correspondent


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Foreign Trade
Japanese Food Chains Ask For Easing Of U.S. Beef Rules
Japanese restaurateurs are urging their government to ease import restrictions on U.S. beef. The Japan Food Service Association (JFSA) and three other restaurant groups say supply of U.S. beef has lagged critically behind demand and driven prices higher, the Japan Times reports.

As of the end of October, only 3,241 tons of U.S. beef have been imported into Japan since the reopening. And fewer than 30% of restaurants serving U.S. beef before the late 2003 ban do so now, according to a recent JFSA poll of 130 steak, beef rice bowl and grilled beef restaurant chains nationwide. Japan currently allows only boneless cuts from cattle younger than 20 months age.

Meanwhile, the Kyodo News reports Japanese fast-food chain Yoshinoya D&C Co. has resumed daily sales of "gyudon" rice bowls topped with seasoned U.S. beef at its 1,000 outlets. But sales of the dish at the 24-hour restaurants are limited to just 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. due to a shortage of U.S. product.

And Japan Today reports Burger King Corp. plans to return to the Japanese market in 2007 after a five-year absence, opening 100 outlets from 2007 to 2012. Burger King pulled out of Japan in 2001 in the wake of weak sales and a price war with McDonalds, the report says.
-- Joe Roybal


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Panama & U.S. Complete FTA
The U.S. and Panama completed free trade agreement (FTA) negotiations. USDA says the agreement provides that more than half of all current U.S. farm exports to Panama will become duty-free immediately, including high-quality beef, mechanically de-boned chicken, turkey, pork variety meats, whey, soybeans, crude vegetable oils, cotton, wheat, barley, most fresh fruits, almonds, walnuts and many processed foods such as soups, chocolate confectionary, distilled spirits, wines and pet food.

U.S. ag will also benefit from expanded market access through tariff-rate quotas on pork, chicken leg quarters, dairy products, corn, rice, refined corn oil, dried beans, frozen French fries and tomato products. Tariffs on most remaining U.S. farm products will be phased out within 15 years.

Also, Panama is revising its sanitary and phytosanitary regs recognizing the equivalence of the U.S. food safety inspection system for meat, poultry and process food products. USDA Secretary Mike Johanns says, "Expanding access to the Panamanian market and increasing our two-way trade will strengthen our economic ties and promote increased stability in the Western Hemisphere."
-- P. Scott Shearer, Washington, D.C., correspondent


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South Korea Says No To Beef As A Part Of FTA Talks
South Korea rejected a U.S. request to discuss U.S. beef and poultry imports this week as part of broader talks on a free trade agreement (FTA). But it would appear the U.S. has considerable leverage in the issue, if it chooses to exert it.

The Korea Herald reports the Korea Development Institute (KDI) says the Korean economy is "suffering" and the government needs to further deregulate industry and boost free trade. Hyun Jung-taik, KDI president, called on Korean policymakers this week to boost productivity by easing business regulations and removing trade and investment barriers. Freer trade, he says, can help the economy more efficiently use its limited resources in competitive sectors, which will make Korean businesses more productive.

"A free trade agreement with the U.S., in particular, will expand trade and increase the productivity of high-value service industry," he said. "This will also prompt other countries to commence trade talks with us, spurring the trade liberalization," he says.

A U.S.-Korean FTA would be particularly lucrative for major Korean industries. Korea's Yonhap News reports experts project an FTA with the U.S., which officials hope to wrap up in spring 2007, would help South Korea increase its automobile trade surplus by US$2.1 billion in 2015.

Meanwhile, the U.S. Meat Export Federation (USMEF) says Korea has surpassed Japan for the world's priciest beef.

"It's a dubious honor," says Phil Seng, USMEF president and CEO. "South Korean consumers are now paying the highest prices for average quality beef, in part because of overly strict import policies toward safe U.S. beef."

USMEF estimates beef consumption in Japan and Korea for 2006 will be 794,000 metric tons (mt) and 305,000 mt, respectively, down from 936,000 mt and 390,000 mt in 2003.
-- Joe Roybal


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Beef Marketing
USMEF Beefs Up Holiday Promotions In Japan
The U.S. Meat Export Federation (USMEF) is expanding its "We Care" campaign to encourage Japanese consumers to enjoy U.S. beef this holiday season. Newspaper and magazine ads are well underway, as are in-train ads that appear in nine major train lines in Japan and are seen by about 21 million people/day.

The ads are made possible by Market Access Program funding through USDA. The ads state the "tender care of everyone's thoughts as they gather around the table. That, above all else, is what American Beef is all about."

The "We Care" campaign is a multi-faceted effort designed to reassure Japanese consumers about the safety and wholesomeness of U.S. beef. The efforts include media events such as a "beef caravan" visiting Japanese cities, newspaper ads, point-of-sale materials, a website (www.wecare.jp) and other promotional efforts in hope of regaining Japanese consumer's confidence in U.S. beef.

In addition, the "We Care" Web site has been updated with holiday season info, including holiday recipes and restaurants that held the American Beef Happy Holiday campaign on Dec. 1.
-- Alaina Burt


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Industry News
Grain Price Estimates Rise
Strong futures prices and their expected impact on the unsold portion of this year's crop have increased forecast prices of sorghum and corn by 10¢ at both ends of the range from $2.90 to $3.30/bu.

That's according to the monthly "Feed Outlook" issued by the Economic Research Service last week. Analysts there note, "Feed grain supplies for 2006-2007 are unchanged from November, and are down 16.4 million metric tons (mt) from 2005-2006. The year-to-year supply decrease reflects lower production and beginning stocks as compared with last year. Imports are expected to be higher in 2006-2007, but still account for only a small share of supply at the projected 2.4 million mt."
-- Wes Ishmael, BEEF Stocker Trends


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Land-Grant Colleges Get Involved In Iraq
Five land-grant universities will lead a USDA-sponsored effort to strengthen ag extension and training in Iraq as a means of helping the new democracy feed itself.

Made possible by a $5.3-million grant, the effort is led by Texas A&M University (TAMU) and includes New Mexico State, Washington State and Utah State universities, as well as the University of California-Davis. Texas' Prairie View A&M and Dine College in Tsaile, AZ, along with universities in Iraq, will also contribute.

"This project is of tremendous importance to the Iraqi people, because only through agriculture can hope for a better future be achieved," Elsa Murano, TAMU vice chancellor and dean of ag and life sciences, tells DTN.

Ag is Iraq's second-largest economic contributor. The consortium will focus their efforts on arid crop production, water management, livestock production and market development.

"A nation's ability to feed its people is a key building block for political stability," says U.S. Rep. Chet Edwards (D-TX), "which is why this project is so important for the future of Iraq and that vital region of the world."
-- Alaina Burt


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National Cowherd Still Treading Water
Further evidence that lingering and expanding drought has stalled national cowherd expansion once again comes with the latest cow and heifer slaughter numbers.

According to weekly data assembled by the Livestock Marketing Info Center (LMIC), federally inspected (FI) cow slaughter increased 11% from January to mid-November this year compared to 2005, tallying 4.9 million head. Compared to the prior five-year average though, cow slaughter was down about 5% for the same period.

Incidentally, dairy-cow slaughter for the same period this year is 4% larger than in 2005.

Moreover, LMIC analysts report, "Since late October, FI heifer slaughter has noticeably increased, with weekly slaughter levels surpassing the corresponding weekly totals last year. As of mid-November, weekly heifer slaughter was slightly larger (about 15,000 head) than 2005's. However, for the first three weeks of November, heifer slaughter was up nearly 9% from last year. As drought conditions persisted in several major cow-calf areas of the U.S. in 2006, cow-calf operations culled cows aggressively but attempted to hold back heifers. Tight forage supplies caused many producers to abandon those heifer hold-back plans during the summer and early fall."

Overall, the folks at LMIC say slaughter data indicate cowherd growth for the year will likely be less than 0.5% as of Jan. 1, 2007.
-- Wes Ishmael, BEEF Stocker Trends


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R-CALF Plans Annual Convention In Denver, CO
R-CALF USA's 8th annual convention is slated for Jan. 17-20 at the DoubleTree Hotel in Denver, CO. It begins Jan. 17 with a 1-5 p.m. property-rights seminar. Opening ceremonies are the next day at 8 a.m. Among planned speakers is USDA Secretary Mike Johanns the morning of Jan. 19. Registration is $60 before Jan. 10, and $70 after. Call 406-252-2516 to register.
-- Joe Roybal


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Young Man's Hereford Wish Comes True
Cancer patient Chris Cummings' wish came true Dec. 2 on the 2006 Hoosier Beef Congress livestock arena floor. The 15-year old from Union Mills, IN, showed a Hereford steer at the Congress, thanks to a wish granted by the Indiana Children's Wish Fund.

Undergoing chemotherapy in Indianapolis earlier this year, Chris applied for a wish through the Center for Children's Cancer and Blood Diseases. He chose to receive and show a steer.

Chris chose Hereford because he likes the look of the breed and had shown a Hereford steer before at the La Porte County Fair. But the caliber of the Congress was a whole new experience, with more than 1,400 cattle exhibited. He enjoyed the event with his parents, Tom and Carol, and brother Tom.

In addition to the steer, the Indiana Children's Wish Fund gave Chris an aluminum grooming chute, combs, halters and other fitting supplies.

Members of Chris' community also helped. Family friend Les Craft helped acquire the Hereford steer from Larry Vukonich of Joliet, MT, and broke the steer to lead. Neighbor Dan Youngreen helped with clipping and grooming, and more friends -- Joy Griffin, Rob Fisher and Dave Ambers -- helped with items like transportation and show entries.

In the end, Chris' steer stood sixth in its class of 11 at the Congress. The Hereford steer, Bob, remains at the Cummings farm, and Chris plans to show him at the county fair this summer, and possibly even the Michigan Beef Expo.

"If people knew what the wish does for a kid, a lot more people would be donors," Carol says. "It's absolutely phenomenal." She explains that when Chris found out about the wish, his chemotherapy went a lot easier, and Chris now looks forward to feeding his steer each morning.
-- Teresa Oe, American Hereford Association


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Government
109th Congress Leaves Unfinished Business
Congress left a number of issues important to ag for the 110th Congress to deal with. Those include:
  • Manure clarification -- Congress failed to pass legislation clarifying that manure is not a hazardous substance or pollutant under Superfund laws. A number of ag groups are concerned that, without clarification, manure as fertilizer on farms could be prohibited.
  • Dust and soot -- Sen. Chuck Grassley's (R-IA) legislation to prohibit the Environmental Protection Agency from enforcing Clean Air Act rules on ag for dust and soot wasn't adopted.
  • Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) -- Congress failed to complete conference committee deliberations on WRDA legislation that would modernize the lock and dam systems on the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, which are more than 60 years old. This is a priority of the National Corn Growers Association, American Soybean Association, Midwest Area Rivers Coalition (MARC 2000), and American Farm Bureau Federation. This is a critical issue to keep American ag competitive in the world market.
-- P. Scott Shearer, Washington, D.C., correspondent


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Republicans Named to Senate Ag Committee
Sens. John Thune (R-SD) and Lindsey Graham (R-SC) are the two new Republican members of the Senate Ag Committee for the 110th Congress. Republican Senators who will continue their committee assignments are: Saxby Chambliss (R-GA), ranking member; Richard Lugar (R-IN); Thad Cochran (R-MS); Mitch McConnell (R-KY); Pat Roberts (R-KS); Norm Coleman (R-MN); Mike Crapo (R-ID); and Chuck Grassley (R-IA).
-- P. Scott Shearer, Washington, D.C., correspondent


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Animal ID
Minnesotans Registering Their Premises At 26% Clip
More than 11,300 Minnesota livestock producers have voluntarily enrolled in the National Animal Identification System (NAIS), reports AgriView. That's slightly more than 26% of the state's 44,109 livestock premises, said Ted Radintz, Minnesota's National Animal ID coordinator.

The Minnesota support level is on par with the premises registration effort nationally, which stands at about 24%, says Bruce Knight, USDA under secretary for marketing and regulatory programs. Based on census data, USDA estimates there are 1,433,582 livestock premises in the U.S.

Radintz says Minnesota beef producers, like their national cattlemen's organizations, tend to favor a voluntary approach to NAIS. The National Pork Producers Council, however, favors a mandatory program.

Animal owners can register their premises online at: animalid.aphis.usda.gov/nais/premises_id/register.shtml, or by phone, or mail, with their state, tribe, or territorial animal-health authority.
-- Joe Roybal


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