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February 2, 2007


Table of Contents
It's Frustration Time In Storm-Hit Cow Country
More Than 6,000 Cattlemen Gather In Nashville, TN
Kansas, Nebraska To Host Farm Bill Forums
Dakotas Plan Cost-Control, Risk-Planning Workshops
Cattle-On-Feed Trends Continue
Nebraska Offers Manure-Management Programs
Wyoming Ranch Takes Top Environmental Award
Bearish On Oil -- Bearish On Corn Prices
Illustrated "Pasture & Range Plants" Book Available
New Limousin EPDs Available
Timber Wolves Off Endangered List In Three States
Voters Show Strong Support For Ethanol
Downer Animals Legislation is Back
Earlier COOL Implementation Proposed In Senate
House Ag Subcommittees Named
Johanns Presents New Farm Bill Proposal
CAB's New Uniformity Rules Now In Effect
February Issue BEEF Content Available Online
Harsh Weather Effects May Linger On Cattle
Rural Entrepreneurship Conference Slated For Feb. 28
Huskers Plan Feb. 19 Beef Cow Nutrition Meeting


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Our Perspective
It's Frustration Time In Storm-Hit Cow Country
It's impossible not to detect the change in attitudes that's occurred since corn skyrocketed to record price levels, and winter storms hit areas of the country hard. There are times when outside forces conspire to create difficulties and wreak havoc in our business, and the frustration that results is certainly understandable.

However, during these times, one has to be careful to avoid the short-term market disruptions clouding your vision relative to long-term trends. At the same time, it is this time of year -- before the grass turns green -- when ranchers have time to contemplate their long-range strategic plans. It's also the time when some folks begin to realize there's a difference between living for the cows, and making a living from the cattle business.

My mom always preached there was a major difference between working hard and working smart. It's great advice, but how does one go about working smarter? Perhaps the answer is actually very simple in theory but difficult in practice.

The key to working smarter is doing what you love, doing what you have passion for, and doing what you're extremely good at and well-rewarded for. Find that magical elixir where your talents, passion and mission intersect, then put the bulk of your efforts in that area.

If you're making $250/hour doing what you love, it's easy to delegate the jobs you don't enjoy, and paying someone $10/hour to do them-- in many cases, probably better than you could. If you find your frustration level building, it may be just the predictable pressures of a commodity business, or it may be a signal your management priorities aren't aligned.
-- Troy Marshall


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More Than 6,000 Cattlemen Gather In Nashville, TN
At press time for this issue, the real policy discussions of the National Cattle Industry Convention in Nashville, TN, hadn't yet been held. The first 11/2 days are primarily composed of educational and informational programs. Following that, the committees get down to the business of making policy.

There's no shortage of issues at these meetings -- everything from the environment to taxes -- that present both challenges and opportunities for the industry. But in the meeting halls this year, the talk among the 6,000+ cattlemen in attendance centers on several key issues.

The primary topic is the corn market and the whole ethanol thing in general. The second is the national beef checkoff. The third is national ID. Let's talk about the latter two issues.
  • The industry survey released last week ("Producer Survey Results Show Checkoff Changes Wanted," Jan. 26 BEEF Cow-Calf Weekly) showed continued broad support for the checkoff. But a majority of respondents felt the case hasn't been made for raising the $1/head checkoff assessment.

    Others are concerned the committee's recommendation of $2 is rather arbitrary and will likely create similar problems in the future. Instead, they suggest the checkoff fee be indexed to cattle prices, the Consumer Price Index or something similar.

    Of course, there can be a lot of unintended consequences in these recommendations, and broad industry support and discussion is needed.

    For instance, the vast majority of respondents favored spending checkoff funds only to promote U.S. beef. But giving up the 10% of total checkoff dollars contributed by importers each year brings up another set of issues. By eschewing the importer dollars, would we have to raise the assessment anyway to make up the loss of market clout?

    And what would divorcing ourselves from importer dollars mean for all the retail promotions the Beef Board has used so successfully, and which have so dramatically helped to leverage our dollars and impact. If it means we must give up the industry's hugely successful promotions with the Taco Bells and Quiznos of the world, will that be more damaging than helpful to our demand-building efforts?

    Another area of universal agreement was the desire by a majority of survey respondents for a regular vote on the continuation of the checkoff. The industry needs to come up with improvements to the governance -- and everyone wants producers to understand how they can contribute their input -- but no one wants the industry to waste millions every few years for an election when industry support remains as strong as it is, either.

  • The third topic is national ID. There's broad support for a voluntary program, and a general distrust of having the government involved in any aspect of the business. With every day that passes since the first case of BSE, the motivation or incentive for national ID seems to wane.

    On the other side, there's also reluctant acknowledgement that our customers are demanding it, and the industry is at major and significant risk by not addressing national ID more aggressively. And, while no one says it in public, there's also recognition that a voluntary program, while it may provide economic incentives for adopters, won't ever adequately safeguard the industry or help it achieve its broader goals.

    With sentiment running so high for promotion of only U.S. beef, I wouldn't be surprised if the industry looked hard at mandatory programs in both country-of-origin labeling and national ID as a solution. It might not satisfy anyone, but it might be better than the alternatives.
-- Troy Marshall


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Farm Bill
Kansas, Nebraska To Host Farm Bill Forums
Ag policy experts from Kansas State University and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln will host a series of meetings in both states focused on the issues and options in this year's farm bill debate. Registration fees will vary at each location, so call or email for more info.

The meetings will discuss the farm bill debate and examine the mechanics and implications of various proposals. Efforts to shift funding to an expanded Conservation Security Program also will be discussed. Each meeting will also provide an opportunity for producer discussion and feedback.

Kansas meetings include: Meanwhile, Nebraska plans meetings Feb. 26 in Scottsbluff, Feb. 27 in Cozad, Feb. 28 in Hastings, and March 2 in Columbus. For more on Nebraska dates, call 402-472-2235 or email blubben2@unl.edu.
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Risk Management
Dakotas Plan Cost-Control, Risk-Planning Workshops
Cost control and risk planning for livestock producers is the focus of a workshop set for four locations in the Dakotas.

Sponsored by North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana state universities, National Crop Insurance Services, and USDA's Risk Management Agency, the workshops are aimed at helping livestock and forage producers in the Northern Plains develop personalized cost-control plans. The 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. workshops will address energy-related issues affecting production costs, feed resources, risk-management tools, and financial-management strategies.

Dates, locations and contact numbers for the workshops are:
  • Feb. 26 -- Upham, ND; 701-537-5404.
  • Feb. 27 -- Hettinger, ND; 701-567-4323.
  • Feb. 28 -- Ellendale, ND; 701-349-3249
  • March 1 -- Watertown, SD; 605-783-3656.
  • March 2 -- Mitchell, SD; 605-425-2242.
Register by Feb. 23 by calling the appropriate phone number. A modest registration fee may be collected at the door to cover meals and refreshments.
-- Joe Roybal


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Beef Markets
Cattle-On-Feed Trends Continue
Higher corn prices, and aggressive early placements of feeder cattle and calves, continues to make for lower placement numbers of late. The December placement number was 9% below last year's levels. Fed cattle marketings (aided by winter weather) were 5% lower than last year, as well. The overall cattle-on-feed number continues to fall -- now just 1% above last year's levels. Meanwhile, the number of heifers on feed is up 4% compared to a year ago, indicating expansion has stopped or significantly slowed down.
-- Troy Marshall


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Environment
Nebraska Offers Manure-Management Programs
Upcoming nutrient-management programs offered in Nebraska include:
  • Feb. 13, 1 p.m., "Challenges and Opportunities with Feeding Ethanol Byproducts," Boone County Fairgrounds, Albion, will discuss byproduct use, as well as impact of byproducts on phosphorous excretion.
  • Feb. 13, 2 p.m., "Vegetative Treatment Systems for Animal Feeding Operations," Boone County Fairgrounds, offers expert advice on the design, installation and maintenance of such systems.
  • Feb. 26, 9 a.m., "Phosphorous Index," Knights of Columbus Hall, Albion, covers the basic principles of phosphorous runoff and use of the phosphorous index software developed by the University of Nebraska. Participants can complete a phosphorous index assessment of their operation at the workshop.
For more info or to register, call 402-395-2158 in Boone County, or 308-536-2691 in Nance County.
-- Joe Roybal


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Wyoming Ranch Takes Top Environmental Award
Southeastern Wyoming's Thaler Land & Livestock Co. is the 2006 Environmental Stewardship Award Program (ESAP) national winner. The announcement was made last night during the 2007 Cattle Industry Convention in Nashville, TN.

Thaler Land & Livestock Co. was among seven regional winners vying for the national award that honors cattle producers whose stewardship practices are inventive, cost-effective and contribute to environmental conservation. Other 2006 regional winners were: Blight Family Farms, Albion, MI; Hayston Farms, Mansfield, GA; Clan Farms, Atlantic, IA; San Pedro Ranch, Carrizo Springs, TX; Diablo Trust Ranches, Coconino County, AZ; and Brown's Gelbvieh Ranch, Bismark, ND.

Homesteaded in 1916, Thaler Land & Livestock in LaGrange, WY, has been active in area conservation efforts since its founder, Joe Matje, worked to establish the South Goshen Conservation District nearly a century ago. Today, the third and fourth generations are represented by Dennis and Sandra Thaler, along with daughter and son-in-law Brandy and Kevin Evans, who together operate the 1,500-head commercial cattle ranch.

"Over the years, the Thaler family has been an ambassador of stewardship, reaching out to educate schoolchildren, community groups, government employees, fellow producers, anyone that will listen," noted the ESAP Selection Committee. "They have an open-door ranch, where spreading the message about stewardship is a number one priority."

Sponsored by the National Cattlemen's Beef Association (NCBA), Dow AgroSciences and USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the ESAP awards are in their 16th year. Nomination forms for the 2007 awards are due March 17. Any organization, group or individual can submit a nomination on behalf of a U.S. cattle producer. To obtain an application, go to www.beefusa.org/esap.
-- NCBA news release


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Industry News
Bearish On Oil -- Bearish On Corn Prices
The recent spike in corn prices may soon turn into a slump, says Michael Swanson, Wells Fargo & Co. economist. He expects oil prices to decline by $5-10/barrel during the next 12-18 months and ethanol profitability and expansion along with it.

"To know the ethanol price, you need to know the price of gas," he says. "Right now, wholesale nearby reformulated blend stock gasoline is selling at $1.20-1.30/gal. The blending credit for blending in ethanol is 51¢/gal, so the nearby wholesale ethanol price is selling at $1.71-1.81."

The net margin on $1.70/gal. ethanol is very small with $4/bu. corn, emphasizes Swanson. In fact, it's not sustainable for long. He's cautioning U.S. farmers about switching too many acres to corn in 2007.

"If we switch a lot of acres into corn, the price of soybeans will go up, and if soybean prices go up to $8-9/bu., Brazilian farmers will be planting a lot more soybeans, and Brazilians can add a lot more soybean acres than we can," he says.

Barring any bad weather news in major crop growing areas, however, Swanson says $4/bu. corn won't likely hold for long.

Here's a look back at average U.S. corn prices per month since 1996: www.nass.usda.gov/Charts_and_Maps.

Although there is a gap in USDA corn price data from 1970-1996, the USDA data on average U.S. corn prices from 1910-1970 is extensive. Here it is:
www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State.pdf.
-- John Pocock, Corn eDigest newsletter


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Illustrated "Pasture & Range Plants" Book Available
The second edition of "Pasture & Range Plants," revised by Robert Nicholson, Fort Hays State University (FHSU) plant and rangeland ecology expert, is now available. Originally published by Phillips Petroleum in 1963, the updated version is completely revised and includes more than 180, full-page, four-color, digitally remastered illustrations of important species of Great Plains plants, with easy-to-read reference guides.

The hardbound copies are $25, with quantity discounts available. Order at www.fhsu.edu/alumni/plantbook.shtml, or contact the FHSU Alumni Association at alumni@fhsu.edu or 888-351-3591.
-- Joe Roybal


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New Limousin EPDs Available
The North American Limousin foundation (NALF) says EPDs from the spring 2007 International Limousin Genetic Evaluation are available at www.nalf.org.
  • Click the "Sire Selector" link at the top of any NALF Web page to specify EPD-selection criteria in searching qualified U.S. and Canadian Limousin and Lim?Flex® bulls.
  • The "Find a Pedigree or EPD" link at the left allows browsers to search for info -- now including the Mainstream Terminal Index ($MTI) value and DNA test results, if available -- about a particular animal. EPDs also are available for bulls and females listed for sale on the Limousin Exchange, accessible via the NALF home page.
  • The site's "Programs" section includes the spring 2007 EPD statistics, percentiles and trends, sire summary qualifications, general sire listing, trait leaders, and a downloadable sire summary.
-- NALF release


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Timber Wolves Off Endangered List In Three States
Gray wolves, also known as timber wolves, are off the endangered species list in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan the federal government announced this week.

Granted protection in 1974 when their numbers in the protected areas were only a few hundred, today there are 3,020 wolves in Minnesota, 460 in Wisconsin, and 430 in upper Michigan. Another 30 live in Lake Superior's Isle Royale National Park.

With the de-listing, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Interior Department will transfer oversight to the states. Barring legal challenges, the transfer will take place 30 days after publication in the Federal Register.

The agencies also proposed removing the northern Rocky Mountain population of gray wolves from the list, with removal of the bald eagle from the endangered species list expected next month.
-- Joe Roybal


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Voters Show Strong Support For Ethanol
The Renewable Fuels Association released a poll recently showing 85% of U.S. voters believe the "government should be involved in the development of alternative fuels." Other findings of the Jan. 8-9 survey of 1,000 registered voters conducted by the Winston Group include:
  • 84% believe the government should provide incentives for the production of alternative fuels, such as ethanol, to reduce dependence on imported oil.
  • 88% believe the development of the domestic ethanol industry helps create jobs and is beneficial to the overall economy.
  • 85% believe ethanol helps farm-state economies.
  • 80% believe ethanol is an important component of our domestically-produced energy supply.
  • 60% believe ethanol impacts the economies of any state not a traditional farm states.

-- P. Scott Shearer, Washington, D.C., correspondent


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Government
Downer Animals Legislation is Back
Sen. Daniel Akaka (D-HI) and Rep. Gary Ackerman (D-NY) introduced the "Downed Animal and Food Safety Protection Act of 2007," which would prohibit "downed" animals from the food supply. Regarding S. 394 and H.R. 681, Ackerman said, "For years, the cattle industry and those who represent them have foolishly put profit ahead of public health and wound up jeopardizing both."

The legislation would require the "humane euthanasia" of nonambulatory animals, prohibit the movement of conscious nonambulatory animals, make it unlawful for an inspector to pass any nonambulatory livestock or carcass, and require that nonambulatory animals be labeled, marked, stamped or tagged as "inspected and condemned." Similar legislation was introduced last Congress.
-- P. Scott Shearer, Washington, D.C., correspondent


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Earlier COOL Implementation Proposed In Senate
Sen. Craig Thomas (R-WY) has introduced S. 404, the "Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) Act of 2007," which would move implementation of COOL to Sept. 30, 2007. It's currently scheduled to go into effect September 2008.
-- P. Scott Shearer, Washington, D.C., correspondent


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House Ag Subcommittees Named
The House Ag Committee organized this week and named subcommittees for the 109th Congress.
  • Conservation, Credit, Energy, and Research: Reps. Tim Holden (D-PA), chairman, and Frank Lucas (R-OK), ranking member. Jurisdiction: soil, water and resource conservation, small watershed program, energy and bio-based energy production, rural electrification, ag credit, and ag research, education and Extension services.
  • Department Operations, Oversight, Nutrition and Forestry: Reps. Joe Baca (D-CA), chairman, and Jo Bonner (R-AL), ranking member. Jurisdiction: agency oversight, review and analysis, special investigations, food stamps, nutrition and consumer programs, forestry in general, and forest reserves other than those created from public domain.
  • General Farm Commodities and Risk Management: Reps. Bob Etheridge (D-NC), chairman, and Jerry Moran (R-KS), ranking member. Jurisdiction: Program and markets related to cotton, cottonseed, wheat, feed grains, soybeans, oilseeds, rice, dry beans, peas, lentils, the Commodity Credit Corporation, crop insurance and commodity exchanges.
  • Horticulture and Organic Ag: Reps. Dennis Cardoza (D-CA), chairman, and Randy Neugebaur (R-TX), ranking member. Jurisdiction: Fruits and vegetables, honey and bees, marketing and promotion orders, plant pesticides, quarantine, adulteration of seeds, inspect pests and organic ag.
  • Livestock, Dairy and Poultry: Reps. Leonard Boswell (D-IA), chairman, and Robin Hays (R-NC), ranking member. Jurisdiction: Livestock, diary, poultry, meat, seafood and seafood products, inspection, marketing and promotion of such commodities, aquaculture, animal welfare and grazing.
  • Specialty Crops, Rural Development and Foreign Ag: Reps. Mike McIntyre (D-NC), chairman, and Marilyn Musgrave (R-CO), ranking member. Jurisdiction: Peanuts, sugar, tobacco, marketing orders relating to such commodities, rural development, farm security and family farming matters, biotechnology, foreign ag assistance and trade promotion programs, generally.
-- P. Scott Shearer, Washington, D.C., correspondent


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Johanns Presents New Farm Bill Proposal
USDA Secretary Mike Johanns unveiled USDA's 2007 farm bill proposal this week, which includes more than 65 recommendations. Johanns indicated the proposal was more market-oriented and equitable as it deals with commodities. He said the proposal would spend $10 billion less than the 2002 farm bill over the past five years, excluding ad-hoc disaster aid. Some key highlights include:

Commodities:
  • End payment limits to individuals with more than $200,000 in adjusted gross income (would only cover about 2.3% of U.S. taxpayers) and limit payments to $360,000.
  • 1031 Exchange: eliminate commodity program payments for all newly purchased land benefiting from a 1031 tax exchange.
  • Eliminate three-entity rule.
  • Countercyclical program will be based on revenue (based on revenue trigger -- not price trigger.
  • Base loan rates on the last five years, removing high and low years, capped at 2002 House of Representatives-passed farm bill levels if necessary (wheat -- $2.58/bu.; corn -- $1.89/bu./ soybeans -- $4.92/bu.; upland cotton -- $0.5192/lb.; and rice -- $6.50/cwt.
  • Posted county price (PCP): replace the current daily PCP with a monthly PCP.
  • Increase direct payments.
  • Planting flexibility: allow planting of fruits and vegetables on program crop acres.
  • Crop Insurance: establish a revenue-based, countercyclical program providing gap coverage in crop insurance, link crop insurance participation to farm program participation.
Conservation:
  • Wetlands Reserve Program: increase from 2.3 million to 3.5 million acres.
  • Consolidate Cost-Share Programs: consolidate cost-share programs into the Environmental Quality Incentives Program and create a Regional Water Enhancement Program with an additional $4.2 billion.
  • Continue Conservation Reserve Program at the current acreage limit and focus on lands with the greatest environmental benefits. Give priority to whole-field enrollment for lands utilized for biomass production of energy.
Renewable Energy:
  • Bioenergy and Biobased Product Research Initiative ($500 million): According to USDA, "Advances in technology play an important role in the future of renewable energy. Our scientists, farmers and entrepreneurs must coordinate efforts to continue improvements in crop yields and work to reduce the cost of producing alternative fuels."
  • Providing $500 Million for Renewable Energy Systems and Efficiency Improvements Grants Program: This program supports small alternative energy and energy efficiency projects that directly help farmers, ranchers and rural small businesses.
  • Provide $210 million to support an estimated $2.1 billion in loan guarantees for cellulosic ethanol projects in rural areas.
Trade:
  • Market Access Program (MAP): Increase funding for MAP by $250 million. The increase is only for specialty crops.
Secretary Johanns and a number of USDA officials are traveling the country over the next few days to discuss the farm bill proposal with producers and the public. Additional information is available at www.usda.gov.
-- P. Scott Shearer, Washington, D.C., correspondent


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Beef Quality
CAB's New Uniformity Rules Now In Effect
Packing plants licensed to produce the Certified Angus Beef ® (CAB) brand began using new, 10-part carcass specs. Among them are three new uniformity specs approved by USDA -- ribeye area of 10-16 sq. in., hot carcass weight less than 1,000 lbs., and external fat thickness less than 1 in. -- the three main variables loosely governed by yield grade (YG).

"Our original limit of YG 3.9 allowed too many outliers," says CAB president John Stika. The new specifications will turn aside an estimated 6.9% of cattle that would have been accepted for the brand in the past.

"The new specifications will help remove some extreme sizing variables," said Mike Drury, Newport Meat Co. senior VP, Irvine, CA. "It is a step CAB had to take to continue delivering the most consistently superior product."

The new specs indicate: "Carcasses shall be derived from cattle that meet the phenotypic or genotypic (AngusSource®) requirements of the USDA Specification for Characteristics of Cattle Eligible for Approved Beef Programs Claiming Angus Influence (GLA), and meet the following set of requirements:
  • Marbling score of minimum Modest or higher
  • Lean color, texture, firmness and overall skeletal characteristics of A maturity
  • Medium or fine marbling texture
  • Ribeye area of 10-16. sq. in.
  • Hot carcass weight less than 1,000 lbs.
  • Fat thickness less than 1 in.
  • Moderately thick or thicker muscling overall and in relation to their length
  • Practically free (not detracting from visual quality) of capillary rupture in the ribeye
  • Free of "dark cutting" characteristics
  • No hump exceeding 2 in. in height."
For more info, visit www.certifiedangusbeef.com.
-- CAB news release


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Tips for Profit
February Issue BEEF Content Available Online
The editorial content of the February issue of BEEF is now available at www.beef-mag.com. Read farm-business management expert Harlan Hughes' third installment in his on-ranch accounting series.

Meanwhile, Wes Ishmael's article, "Mating with a Guarantee" details how the future may finally be here for DNA-based diagnostic tools. The article also includes a comparison chart of 12 commercial DNA diagnostic products, detailing what traits the tests measure, the types of samples used, how results are reported, the cost and the turnaround time for results.

In addition, there are other articles on a practical composite breeding system employed by Spade Ranches that optimizes heterosis in herds of any size, strategic supplementation strategies, and finding calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea.
-- Joe Roybal


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Harsh Weather Effects May Linger On Cattle
While this winter's harsh weather will subside, its effect on Plains-area cattle herds will linger in "secondary losses" -- weak calves at birth, cows in poorer condition than usual at calving, and rebreeding problems.

Kansas State University DVM Larry Hollis says much will depend on how long storm cattle went without feed, which drains body reserves. With cows already stressed and lacking condition, a cold snap can sometimes spark spontaneous abortions -- usually within 48 hours of the drop in temperatures, Hollis says.

"The key to keep that from happening is to feed well and start getting body condition back where it should be," Hollis says. He expects poor condition in cows at calving to precipitate more neonatal death loss in some herds.

"It might help to get calves in a warming box if the lack of calf vigor is due to the cold. And this year, it may be especially important to give cows a warmer, dry place to calve," he says.

This winter's effects could last until breeding time, he says, with more non-cycling cows. "Don't look at the hair -- look at the cow. Try to determine what she needs to make sure she's in the best condition at breeding time as possible," Hollis says.

For more on winter feeding, body condition scoring, and neonatal calf care, visit www.beefcowcalf.com. The free BEEF magazine-sponsored Web site offers more than links to more than 2,000 fact sheets and research papers on hundreds of cow-calf production and management topics.
-- Kansas State University news release


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Rural Entrepreneurship Conference Slated For Feb. 28
"Opening Doors to Rural Success," is set for Feb. 28 in Kearney, NE. Set for the Ramada Inn, the conference will focus on building jobs and the rural economy from within and will offer training, networking, and professional development opportunities for startup and existing small businesses, rural communities, and family farmers and ranchers.

In addition to allowing prospective entrepreneurs to network with experts and ask questions, the meeting will feature 30-40 teaching tracts covering such topics as writing business plans and marketing your business. Other sessions will focus on ag entrepreneurship, youth entrepreneurship, community development, and rural issues and policy.

For more info, contact Kathie Starkweather at 402-687-2103, ext. 1014, kathies@cfra.org or visit www.marketplacenebraska.org.
-- Joe Roybal


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Industry Meetings
Huskers Plan Feb. 19 Beef Cow Nutrition Meeting
Feeding ethanol byproducts is the aim of a beef cow nutrition meeting Feb. 19 at the Prim Town Pub in Primrose, NE. Starting at 5:30 p.m., the program includes: utilizing corn co-products in beef rations, ration evaluation, impact of corn co-products on quality grade, mineral Nutrition and ethanol production.

An evening meal is included for those registering by Feb. 15. Call Boone County Extension at 402-395-2158, or Nance County at 308-536-2691.
-- Joe Roybal


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